Any review of 2020 must be dominated by one major theme – the Covid-19 pandemic. We all know the problems this has caused so I’ll swiftly move on to the happier subjects of palaeogravity and Earth expansion, whilst ignoring the pandemic as far as possible.
The start of the year saw the publication of a new paper about Earth expansion from Alexey Ju. Retejum, Moscow State University. The Expanding Earth: Indisputable Evidences of the Gobi Desert, published in the Open Journal of Geology, discussed the striking contrasts between actual continental temperatures at the end of the Mesozoic and the temperatures predicted by conventional reconstructions. These problems disappeared once Earth expansion concepts were used. The giant animals of the time would also be difficult to explain unless gravity was lower.
One of the main remits of the Gravity Research Foundation is to encourage research into gravity. They promote this research by offering small annual awards for essays on gravity and also publish a dozen or so of these articles in a special International Journal of Modern Physics publication. Any evidence of a change in the Earth’s surface gravity over time should be of special interest to this foundation.
Physicists agree that a change in gravity would affect the scale of life. Look at what Brian Cox, a British Professor of Physics and Public Engagement in Science, said in his 2013 book Wonders of Life:
"On a planet with a weaker force of gravity, trees constructed from lignin could therefore grow much taller than they do on Earth..." (p121), "Any structure scaled upwards on Earth will eventually fail under its own weight ... because the force of gravity acts in proportion to its mass." (p135) Ultimately, then, the size of animals on land is restricted by the strength of bone and the mass of the Earth. On a planet such as Mars, given the same bone strength, animals could be more massive because Mars's gravitational pull is around a third of the Earth. This would permit, in principle, larger animals to roam the red planet." (p139), "It is not the availability of food or the outcomes of evolution that ultimately decide the size of the largest land-based animal - it is gravity." (p138), "... there is a maximum size, which on land is set by the size and mass of our planet, because the force of gravity restricts the emergence of giants." (p161).
Prof. Cox’s description of life in a reduced gravity is exactly what we see on the ancient Earth. The whole of ancient life was shifted towards a larger relative scale, from giant insects to dinosaurs, because gravity was less. In the skies there were gigantic pterosaurs the size of a small plane (more about them later). So it would seem that an article asking “Can we calculate palaeogravity?” should be welcomed in these annual awards on gravity research. I submitted my article in early 2020. It was rejected in May. For me this just demonstrates how difficult it is to get anyone to question their fundamental belief in an unchanging surface gravity on the Earth. Even physicists can’t overcome their belief despite all the scientific evidence that surface gravity was less in the past. I published the article later in the year so you can still read that short introduction to the scientific evidence.
An even greater dichotomy between unreasoning belief and science is seen concerning the belief that the Earth has remained the same size since the dinosaurs’ time. The geological evidence shows that the Earth has gradually increased in size over geological time. Numerous scientists have written articles and books presenting the evidence for Earth expansion. Several books presenting the evidence in great scientific detail have been published in the last decade. More recently the Polish geologist Jan Koziar published his book, Geological Proofs of Significant Expansion of the Earth and its broader scientific context. Seven geological proofs of significant expansion of the Earth were presented in this book, each of them is a proof of the fallacy of the basic and unproven assumption that the Earth is not expanding. James Maxlow, the Australian geologist, also published his book, Beyond Plate Tectonics - Unsettling settled science. This explained that science is never settled. New revolutionary ideas have always overturned the settled sciences of the past. In this far–reaching book the author looked beyond plate tectonics in order to detail the next earth science revolution.
Despite this most people continue to simply ignore the evidence. They prefer to believe that the Earth has remained the same size since its formation over 4.5 billion years ago.
Last year, I suggested to several of the leading researchers in Earth expansion that a book aimed at a more general readership might help shake this belief in a non-expanding Earth. Perhaps a book concentrating more on the history of Earth expansion might introduce more people to the vast amount of research available. So I spent some time editing a book about the history of Earth expansion. It consisted of chapters by several authors to give us a unique insight about working at the very forefront of this innovative research. The Hidden History of Earth Expansion: Told by researchers creating a Modern Theory of the Earth had chapters by: Hugh G. Owen, Cliff Ollier, Karl-Heinz Jacob, James Maxlow, Jan Koziar, Stefan Cwojdziñski, Carl Strutinski, John B. Eichler, William C. Erickson, David Noel, Zahid A. Khan and Ram Chandra Tewari, Vedat Shehu and Richard Guy. The book was published on the 14 May 2020 and is widely available at all good bookshops worldwide.
The NCGT Journal was one of the first to mention “The Hidden History of Earth Expansion” in the May 2020 edition of their journal. The journal has published many papers about Earth expansion over the years. As they state on their web site, "What is today's contrarian science, may become tomorrow's established science." The editor, Louis A. G. Hissink, reviewed the new book for the August 2020 edition of the journal.
Many of you sent me photos of the book in various places around the world. I love seeing all the photos so keep them coming!