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Once again most of our lives continued to be dominated by the Covid-19 pandemic. Although the vaccines have started to reduce its impact a new variant has reminded us that it isn’t finished yet. So as we hold our breath to see what surprise 2022 has for us let’s look back at 2021.

The Short Lecture Series continued with a talk by Richard Guy. All the short lectures are available on YouTube. We’ve had talks by James Maxlow, John Eichler, Vedat Shehu and Richard Guy.

The busiest person this year must be Dr James Maxlow. In addition to the talk he gave in the Short Lecture Series, has also given multiple talks to the John Chappell group, including:  Expansion Tectonics: Blind Faith, Expansion Tectonics: Fact of Mere Coincidence, Expansion Tectonics Final: Fact of Mere Coincidence #2, Expansion Tectonics #3: Fact or Mere Coincidence? , Expansion Tectonics #2: Dr. Maxlow on Permian to Archaean Small Earth Modelling, Expansion Tectonics: Dr. Maxlow on Recent to Permian Small Earth Modeling.

James Maxlow also updated his book, Beyond Plate Tectonics - Unsettling Settled Science, with a second edition and this is widely available as a paperback and Kindle ebook. Amazon UK certainly have copies. You might even be able to get a free pdf copy from his web site.

Dr James Maxlow has given a number of lectures about expansion Tectonics and I noticed that one of his original lectures about Expansion Tectonics passed 80,000 views on YouTube during the year.

James Maxlow also published a new paper, Expansion Tectonics: An Overview, in the September 2021 issue of the NCGT Journal. A pdf copy of the Journal is freely available from their web site. The article describes the concept that ions from the Solar Wind would cause Earth expansion via mass increase. It can hardly be a coincidence that the NCGT editor has chosen to include other articles in that issue describing how Space Weather can be related to a number of Earthquakes.     

There are other possible causes of Earth expansion. One is that aether is being absorbed by the Earth and converted into matter. Dr Giancarlo Scalera published a new paper, Hydrodynamic Gravitation as Cause of Earth Expansion and Red-Shift, further refining details of this concept.

James Maxlow had also written one of the chapters for the new 2020 book, The Hidden History of Earth Expansion, which has continued to sell slowly but steadily throughout the year. Amazon in particular does a fine job in promoting the book with regular sale drives.

In March the science journal Nature reported that transform faults stretch and grow. This is astonishing for Plate Tectonic theory because, as the News and Views section of Nature explained, “Tectonic-plate material is generally thought to be neither created nor destroyed at plate boundaries called oceanic transform faults. An analysis of sea-floor topography suggests that this assumption is incorrect”. While this discovery is a problem for Plate Tectonics, requiring the development of some complex ad hoc theories to account for the stretching, it isn’t a problem for the rival theory of Earth expansion. In fact it has long been predicted that transform faults will be widening if the Earth is expanding. The scientists had just discovered more evidence for Earth expansion. Don Findlay made a similar point on Twitter.

A few more people created videos about Earth expansion. There was The Expanding Earth - an observational documentary, and Earth 4.0 from New Pangaea Theory.  

One of the most interesting tasks is to try to recreate your own Expanding Earth reconstructions. They are the ultimate puzzle. The Earth is a three-dimensional puzzle so if you change one part of the globe it can easily affect another part on the opposite side of the globe. Added to that the size of the pieces change over time as they grow. So it is always interesting to look at how others have approached various details. This year there were some interesting new reconstructions by Dominik Katona.

I don’t seem to have done much this year. The ReseachGate web site allows uploading and sharing of science papers, and my own articles about palaeogravity have continued to gain readers. ResearchGate tell me I have over 11,000 reads so far.

At the end of 2020 last year I’d published a paper about Quetzalcoatlus northropi, a gigantic pterosaur. Its wingspan of 10-11 metres was the size of a small plane and it would have stood as tall as a giraffe. Recent estimates have calculated its mass at about 250kg (1/4 ton). My paper asked how well such a massive animal could fly in a reduced palaeogravity. The answer was that it could fly very well - about the same as large birds fly in our present gravity.  That paper has proved popular with over eight hundred reads during its first year on Research Gate.
Dr James Maxlow - the busiest person this year?
ResearchGate allows sharing of science papers

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Transform faults stretch and grow
Apart from that I used the fundamental technique of comparing dynamically similar extinct and extant animals to calculate palaeogravity when a fossil trackway of the gigantic sea scorpion was formed. The results indicate a tentative palaeogravity of 0.37g at about 330 million years ago.

One of my top reads on Research Gate is the 2012 paper, Ancient Life's Gravity and its Implications for the Expanding Earth, prepared for the book, The Earth expansion evidence – A Challenge for Geology, Geophysics and Astronomy - Selected Contributions to the Interdisciplinary Workshop of the 37th International School of Geophysics. That has over three thousand reads. If you don’t know what giant pterosaurs or sea scorpions have to do with Earth expansion you should read that 2012 paper.

That’s my highlights of 2021 but why don’t you let me know your own highlights or any comments on the Facebook Page.

I hope you’ve all enjoyed Xmas and I wish you all the best for the New Year.


Hurrell, S. (2020 - editor). The Hidden History of Earth Expansion:  Told by researchers creating a Modern Theory of the Earth. Publisher details
Hurrell, S.W. (2020). The flying ability of the pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus northropi in a reduced gravity. pdf
Maxlow, J. (2021). Beyond Plate Tectonics - Unsettling settled science. Amazon (UK)

Page first created   31 Dec 2021
Page last updated  31 Dec 2021