The Geological Society was inaugurated in 1807 and has a long history of debating controversial geological topics. During its time the society's members have debated innovative geological ideas like the age of the Earth, Ice Ages and continental drift while other people mostly ignored the subjects. During his presidential address in 1953, George Martin Lees highlighted the poor fit of South America and Africa as one of the crucial reasons to reject the controversial theory of continental drift. The Australian geologist S. Warren Carey replied that the fit was very good and in 1955 the Geological Society published Carey’s South American / African assembly proving the point. Over a decade later a computer fit based on Carey’s reconstruction was published which became widely known as the Bullard Fit. Nowadays that same reconstruction is published in virtually every modern geological text book as evidence for continental drift (known today as plate tectonics).
With such a long history of debate it’s no surprise that the Geological Society has now published Cwojdziński’s paper discussing Earth expansion. The concept of Earth expansion is one of the most long-running controversial geoscience topics still in need of resolution.
Professor Cwojdziński, to give him his full professional title, is a Polish geologist who has spent many years investigating the concept of Earth expansion. After he completed his studies in geology at Wroclaw University he was employed at the Polish Geological Institute. A great deal of his time there, over 20 years, was spent in the geological mapping of the Sudetes Mountains. He also continued his studies in geology and obtained his doctorate in geology for his thesis on the geological evolution of Variscan Klodzko-Zloty Stok granitoid massif. Geological cartography was his main professional activity, carried out as far apart as Finland, Mongolia and Algeria. Between the years 1988 to 2000 he was the director of the Lower Silesian Branch of the Polish Geological Institute. He published many scientific papers and became a Professor in 2006.
Cwojdziński began to study Earth expansion in 1984 and started to publish science papers about this in various journals. These have covered a wide range of different aspects of the theory and now amount to over 20 science papers. In 1994 he helped to organise a symposium in Poland to discuss various aspects of the expanding Earth theory. In 2003 the Polish Geological Institute published Cwojdziński’s paper, The Tectonic Structure of the Continental Lithosphere Considered in the Light of the Expanding Earth Theory: A Proposal of a New Interpretation of Deep Seismic Data. The Special Paper was in practice somewhere between a book and a paper since it covered 79 pages. In 2011 he helped to organise another symposium, The Earth Expansion Evidence: A Challenge for Geology, Geophysics and Astronomy.
The Geological Society is the recognised UK professional body for Geoscientists and Cwojdziński’s new Earth expansion paper is freely available to its 11,500 professional geoscience members, while non-members may purchase the article. Cwojdziński’s new paper takes us from the history of continental drift through to plate tectonics and explains how this is really a hypothesis for a non-expanding Earth. Plate tectonics theory has to consume oceanic crust in the so-called subduction zones to compensate for the growth of the Earth. The process of the widening of new oceans, such as the Atlantic, Arctic and Indian oceans, should be simultaneous with the shrinking of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean. If it is not compensated for then the Earth will increase in size. If the Pacific Ocean expands, then the expansion of the Earth is inevitable.
Cwojdziński, S. (2016). History of a discussion: selected aspects of the Earth expansion v. plate tectonics theories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 442. SP442-24.
Abstract & pdf Comments
Cwojdziñski, S. (2004). Mantle plumes and dynamics of the Earth interior—towards a new model. Geological Review, 52(8/2).
Abstract & Free pdf
Cwojdziński, S. (2003). The tectonic structure of the continental lithosphere considered in the light of the expanding Earth theory—a proposal of a new interpretation of deep seismic data. Polish Geological Institute Special Papers, 9, 5-79.
Boschi, Cwojdzinski & Scalera - editors (2012). The Earth Expansion Evidence: A Challenge for Geology, Geophysics and Astronomy. Selected Contributions to the Interdisciplinary Workshop held in Erice, Sicily, Italy, 4-9 October 2011 at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre For Scientific Culture.
Bullard's fit - A description by the Geological Society
Bullard, E., Everett, J. E., & Smith, A. G. (1965). The fit of the continents around the Atlantic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51.
Carey, S. W. (1955). Wegener’s South America-Africa assembly, fit or misfit? Geol. Mag, 92(3), 196-200.
Samual Warren Carey, 1912-2002 - Obituary by the Geological Society
Page first created 20 Nov 16
Page last updated 09 Jan 17